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生物降解塑料应用及分类介绍

生物降解塑料应用及分类介绍

来源网址: 2019-10-22 15:20:42    

  生物降解塑料是由细菌、霉菌(真菌)、藻类等微生物作用产生的一种塑料。理想的可生物降解塑料是一种应用性能优异的高分子材料,废弃后可由环境微生物完全合成,最终成为无机物,成为自然界碳循环的一部分。”“纸”是典型的生物降解材料,“合成塑料”是典型的高分子材料。因此,生物可降解塑料是具有纸和合成塑料性质的高分子材料。

  Biodegradable plastic is a kind of plastic which is degraded by the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, mould (fungus) and algae. The ideal biodegradable plastic is a kind of polymer material with excellent use performance, which can be completely decomposed by environmental microorganisms after being discarded, and finally become an integral part of carbon cycle in nature. "Paper" is a typical biodegradable material, while "synthetic plastic" is a typical polymer material. Therefore, biodegradable plastics are polymer materials with the properties of paper and synthetic plastics.
可降解颗粒
  定义
  Definition
  生物降解塑料又可分为完全生物降解塑料和破坏性生物降解塑料两种。破坏性生物降解塑料当前主要包括淀粉改性(或填充)聚乙烯PE、聚丙烯PP、聚氯乙烯PVC、聚苯乙烯PS等。
  Biodegradable plastics can be divided into two types: complete biodegradable plastics and destructive biodegradable plastics. At present, destructive biodegradable plastics mainly include starch modified (or filled) polyethylene PE, polypropylene PP, PVC, polystyrene PS, etc.
  完全生物降解塑料主要是由天然高分子(如淀粉、纤维素、甲壳质)或农副产品经微生物发酵或合成具有生物降解性的高分子制得,如热塑性淀粉塑料、脂肪族聚酯、聚乳酸、淀粉/聚乙烯醇等均属这类塑料。
  Fully biodegradable plastics are mainly made from natural polymers (such as starch, cellulose, chitin) or agricultural and sideline products by microbial fermentation or synthesis of biodegradable polymers, such as thermoplastic starch plastics, aliphatic polyester, polylactic acid, starch / polyvinyl alcohol, etc.
  以淀粉等天然物质为基础的生物降解塑料目前主要包括以下几种产品:聚乳酸(PLA)、聚羟基烷酸酯(PHA)、淀粉塑料、生物工程塑料、生物通用塑料(聚烯烃和聚氯乙烯)。
  At present, biodegradable plastics based on natural substances such as starch mainly include the following products: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), starch plastics, bioengineering plastics, and general-purpose plastics (polyolefin and PVC).
  应用
  application
  生物降解塑料由于具有良好的降解性,主要用作食物软硬包装材料,这也是现阶段其最大的应用领域。
  Due to its good degradability, biodegradable plastics are mainly used as soft and hard food packaging materials, which is also the largest application field at this stage.
  生物降解塑料主要的目的市场是塑料包装薄膜、农用薄膜、一次性塑料袋和一次性塑料餐具。相比传统塑料包装资料,新型降解资料本钱稍高。但是随着环保认识的加强,人们愿意为维护环境而运用价钱稍高的新型降解资料,环保认识的加强给生物降解新资料行业带来了宏大的开展机遇。随着中国经济的开展,胜利举行奥运会、世博会等多项震惊世界的大型活动,各世界文化遗产及国度级景色名胜所在地维护的需求,塑料形成的环境污染问题愈发被注重,各级政府已将管理白色污染列为重点工作之一。
  The main target markets of biodegradable plastics are plastic packaging film, agricultural film, disposable plastic bag and disposable plastic tableware. Compared with traditional plastic packaging materials, the cost of new degradation materials is slightly higher. However, with the enhancement of environmental protection awareness, people are willing to use new degradation materials with higher price for environmental protection. The enhancement of environmental protection awareness has brought great opportunities for the development of new biodegradable materials industry. With the development of China's economy, the successful holding of the Olympic Games, the World Expo and many other large-scale activities shocked the world, the need for the protection of world cultural heritage and national scenic spots, the environmental pollution caused by plastics has been paid more and more attention, and the government at all levels has made the white pollution control one of the key work.
  欧、美、日等兴旺国度和地域相继制定和出台了有关法规,经过部分禁用、限用、强迫搜集以及收取污染税等措施限制不可降解塑料的运用,鼎力开展生物降解新资料,以维护环境、维护土壤,其中法国2005年即出台政策规则一切可拎一次性塑料袋在2010年后必需可生物降解。
  Developed countries and regions such as Europe, the United States and Japan have successively formulated and issued relevant laws and regulations, limiting the use of non degradable plastics through local prohibition, restriction, compulsory collection and collection of pollution taxes, etc., and vigorously developing new biodegradable materials to protect the environment and soil. In 2005, France issued a policy that all disposable plastic bags must be able to be used after 2010. biodegradation.
  同时,中国也陆续出台了多项政策鼓励生物降解塑料的应用和推广。2004年全国人大通过了《可再生能源法(草案)》和《固废法(修订)》,鼓励再生生物质能的利用和降解塑料的推广应用;2005年,国家发改委第40号文件明确鼓励生物降解塑料的使用和推广;2006年,国家发改委启动关于推广生物质生物降解材料发展的专项基金项目;2007年1月1日实施的《降解塑料的定义、分类、标识和降解性能要求》得到了欧洲、美国和日本等国的互认,为中国企业出口产品提供了便利。
  At the same time, China has introduced a number of policies to encourage the application and promotion of biodegradable plastics. In 2004, the National People's Congress passed the renewable energy law (Draft) and the solid waste law (Revised), encouraging the use of renewable biomass energy and the promotion and application of degradable plastics; in 2005, the national development and Reform Commission (NDRC) No. 40 document explicitly encouraged the use and promotion of biodegradable plastics; in 2006, the national development and Reform Commission launched a special fund on promoting the development of biomass biodegradable materials. Objective: the definition, classification, identification and degradation performance requirements of degradable plastics implemented on January 1, 2007 has been recognized by Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries, providing convenience for Chinese enterprises to export products.
  分类
  classification
  从原材料上分类,生物降解塑料至少有以下几种:
  According to the classification of raw materials, there are at least the following types of Biodegradable Plastics:
  聚己内酯(PCL)
  Polycaprolactone (PCL)
  这种塑料具有良好的生物降解性,熔点是62℃。分解它的微生物广泛地分布在喜气或厌气条件下。作为可生物降解材料可把它与淀粉、纤维素类的材料混合在一起,或与乳酸聚合使用。
  This kind of plastic has good biodegradability, the melting point is 62 ℃. The microorganisms that decompose it are widely distributed under the conditions of pleasant or anaerobic. As a biodegradable material, it can be mixed with starch, cellulose, or polymerized with lactic acid.
  聚丁二酸丁二醇酯(PBS)及其共聚物
  Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and its copolymers
  以PBS(熔点为114℃)为基础材料制造各种高分子量聚酯的技术已经达到工业化生产水平。日本三菱化学和昭和高分子公司已经开始工业化生产,规模在千吨左右。
  The technology of manufacturing various high molecular weight polyester based on PBS (melting point: 114 ℃) has reached the level of industrial production. Japan's Mitsubishi Chemical and Showa polymer company has started industrial production, with a scale of about 1000 tons.
  中科院理化研究所也在进行聚丁二酸丁二醇酯共聚酯的合成研究。中科院理化研究所已经和山东汇盈公司合作建成了年产25000吨的PBS及其聚合物的生产线、广东金发公司建成了年产1000吨规模的生产线等。清华大学在安庆和兴化工有限公司建成了年产10000吨PBS及其共聚物的生产线。
  The Institute of physics and chemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences is also carrying out the research on the synthesis of polybutylene succinate copolyester. The Institute of physics and chemistry of Chinese Academy of Sciences has cooperated with Shandong Huiying company to build a production line of PBS and its polymers with an annual output of 25000 tons, and Guangdong Jinfa company has built a production line with an annual output of 1000 tons. Tsinghua University has established a production line with an annual output of 10000 tons of PBS and its copolymers in Anqing Hexing Chemical Co., Ltd.
  聚乳酸(PLA)
  Polylactic acid (PLA)
  美国Natureworks公司在完善聚乳酸生产工艺方面做了积极有效的工作,开发了将玉米中的葡萄糖发酵制取聚乳酸,年生产能力已达1.4万吨。日本UNITIKA公司,研发和生产了许多种制品,其中帆布、托盘、餐具等在日本爱知世博会被广泛使用。
  NatureWorks company of the United States has done active and effective work in improving the production process of polylactic acid. It has developed the production of polylactic acid by fermentation of glucose in corn, with an annual production capacity of 14000 tons. Unitika company of Japan has developed and produced many kinds of products, among which canvas, tray and tableware are widely used in Aichi Expo.
  中国产业化的有浙江海生生物降解塑料股份有限公司(规模5000千吨/年生产线),正在中试的单位有上海同杰良生物材料有限公司、江苏九鼎集团等。
  China's industrialization includes Zhejiang Haisheng biodegradable plastics Co., Ltd. (production line with a scale of 5000 kilotons / year), and the pilot units are Shanghai eliang biomaterials Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Jiuding group, etc.
  聚羟基烷酸酯(PHA)
  Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)
  国外实现工业化生产的主要为美国和巴西等国。国内生产单位有天津国韵生物材料有限公司(规模1万吨/年) [2] 、宁波天安生物材料有限公司(规模2千吨/年),正在中试的单位有江苏南天集团股份有限公司等。
  The United States and Brazil are the main countries to realize industrial production abroad. Domestic production units include Tianjin Guoyun biomaterial Co., Ltd. (10000 tons / year) [2], Ningbo Tian'an biomaterial Co., Ltd. (2000 tons / year), and Jiangsu Nantian Group Co., Ltd. is in pilot test.
  利用可再生资源得到的生物降解塑料,把脂肪族聚酯和淀粉混合在一起,生产可降解性塑料的技术也已经研究成功。在欧美国家,淀粉和脂肪族聚酯的共混物被广泛用来生产垃圾袋等产品。国际上规模最大、销售最好的是意大利的Novamont公司,其商品名为Mater-bi,公司的产品在欧洲和美国有较大量的应用。
  The technology of producing degradable plastics by mixing aliphatic polyester and starch with biodegradable plastics from renewable resources has also been studied successfully. In European and American countries, starch and aliphatic polyester blends are widely used to produce garbage bags and other products. Novamont is the largest and best-selling company in the world. Its trade name is mater Bi. Its products are widely used in Europe and the United States.
  国内研究和生产的单位很多,其中产业化的单位有武汉华丽科技有限公司(规模4万吨/年)、浙江华发生态科技有限公司(8千吨/年)、浙江天禾生态科技有限公司(5千吨/年)、福建百事达生物材料有限公司(规模2千吨/年)、肇庆华芳降解塑料有限公司(规模5千吨/年)等。
  There are many domestic research and production units, including Wuhan Huali Technology Co., Ltd. (40000 tons / year), Zhejiang HUAFA Ecological Technology Co., Ltd. (8000 tons / year), Zhejiang Tianhe Ecological Technology Co., Ltd. (5000 tons / year), Fujian best biological materials Co., Ltd. (2000 tons / year), Zhaoqing Huafang Degradation Plastics Co., Ltd. (5000 tons / year) Tons / year).
  脂肪族芳香族共聚酯
  Aliphatic aromatic copolyester
  德国BASF公司所制造的脂肪族芳香族无规共聚酯(Ecoflex),其单体为:己二酸、对苯二甲酸、1,4-丁二醇。生产能力在14万吨/年。同时开发了以聚酯和淀粉为主的生物降解塑料制品。
  The aliphatic aromatic random copolyester (ecoflex) manufactured by BASF company in Germany has the following monomers: adipic acid, terephthalic acid and 1,4-butanediol. The production capacity is 140000 tons / year. At the same time, the biodegradable plastic products based on polyester and starch were developed.
  聚乙烯醇(PVA)类生物降解塑料
  Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biodegradable plastics
  如意大利NOVMANT的MaterBi产品在上世纪90年代主要是在淀粉中加入PVA,它能吹膜,也能加工其它产品。聚乙烯醇类材料,需要经过一定的改性后方具有良好的生物降解性能,北京工商大学轻工业塑料加工应用研究所在这方面取得了一定成果。
  For example, materbi products of novant in Italy mainly added PVA into starch in the 1990s, which can blow film and process other products. Polyvinyl alcohol materials need to be modified to have good biodegradability. The Institute of light industrial plastics processing and application of Beijing University of technology and industry has made some achievements in this respect.
  二氧化碳共聚物
  Carbon dioxide copolymer
  国外,最早研究二氧化碳共聚物的国家主要为日本和美国,但一直没有工业化生产。国内内蒙古蒙西集团公司采用长春应用化学研究所的技术,已建成年产3000吨二氧化碳/环氧化合物共聚物树脂的装置,产品主要应用在包装和医用材料上。中科院广州化学研究所陈立班博士开发的低分子量二氧化碳共聚物技术已在江苏泰兴开始投产,品种是低相对分子质量二氧化碳/环氧化合物共聚物,用来作为聚氨酯发泡材料的原材料,用于家用电器等的包装。河南天冠集团采用中山大学孟跃中教授的技术,已经建成中试规模的二氧化碳共聚物生产线,预计今年能中试生产。
  In foreign countries, the first countries to study carbon dioxide copolymers are mainly Japan and the United States, but they have not been industrialized. Inner Mongolia Mengxi Group Co., Ltd. adopts the technology of Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, and has built a device to produce 3000 tons of carbon dioxide / epoxy copolymer resin. The products are mainly used in packaging and medical materials. The low molecular weight CO 2 copolymer technology developed by Dr. Chen Liban, Guangzhou Institute of chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has been put into production in Taixing, Jiangsu Province. The product is low molecular weight CO 2 / epoxy copolymer, which is used as raw material of polyurethane foam material and packaging of household appliances. Henan Tianguan Group adopts the technology of Professor Meng Yuezhong from Zhongshan University, and has built a pilot scale carbon dioxide copolymer production line, which is expected to be pilot production this year.
  其它如甲壳素、聚酰胺、聚天冬酸、聚糖、纤维素等均在研发之中。
  Others such as chitin, polyamide, polyaspartic acid, glycan and cellulose are under development.
  聚-β-羟基丁酸酯(PHB)
  Poly - β - hydroxybutyrate (PHB)
  从世界范围看,PHB及PHBV是公认的最有希望的生物降解塑料之一,也是正在开发的新产品。技术方的中试生产成本约40元人民币/公斤,工业化投产后产品的成本将会进一步降低,价格优势明显,尤其是技术方的生产工艺简单和设备简易,便 于推广并进行大规模生产。
  Worldwide, PHB and PHBV are recognized as one of the most promising biodegradable plastics, as well as new products under development. The pilot production cost of the technical side is about 40 yuan / kg, and the cost of the products after industrial production will be further reduced. The price advantage is obvious, especially the production process of the technical side is simple and the equipment is simple, which is convenient for promotion and large-scale production.
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